What Are The Types Of Stem Cell Transplant?


Stem cells have the potential to treat a variety of diseases and illnesses. There are two major types of stem cell transplantations that are performed on people based on their condition and other health factors. These types are called allogeneic stem cell transplant and autologous stem cell transplant. Let us see them in detail to understand how they work and what roles they play. There are many stem cell therapy texas centers that perform the process.

What Is Autologous Stem Cell Transplant?

An autologous stem cell transplant takes healthy blood stem cells from the patient’s body and uses them to replace the diseased or damaged bone marrow. An autologous stem cell transplant is also referred to as an autologous bone marrow transplant.

Using cells from a person’s own body during the stem cell transplant has some advantages over stem cells from a donor or another person. For example, they won’t need to worry about the incompatibility between the donor’s cells and their cells if they are undergoing an autologous stem cell transplant.

This procedure might be an option if the person’s body is producing sufficient healthy bone marrow cells. Those cells can be collected, frozen and kept in store for later use.

Why Is It Done?

Autologous stem cell transplants are usually used in people who need to undergo high doses of chemotherapy and radiation to cure their illnesses. These treatments tend to damage the bone marrow. Hence, an autologous stem cell transplant helps to replace this damaged bone marrow. This transplant procedure is most often used to treat:

  • Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
  • Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
  • Myeloma
  • Plasma Cell Disorders

What Can Be Expected Before/During/After The Autologous Stem Cell Transplant?

The patient will have to take medications to increase the stem blood cell count in the body.

Apheresis is performed which means that the stem cells are filtered from the blood.

The body is conditioned before surgery that involves the patient undergoing high doses of cancer treatment.

The patient will receive an infusion of stem cells as a part of the stem therapy process.

What Is An Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant?

An Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant is the process of using healthy blood stem cells from a donor to replace the patient’s diseased or damaged bone marrow. An allogeneic stem cell transplant is also referred to as an Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplant.

A donor can be a family member, an acquaintance or a stranger that the patient does not know. The blood stem cells used for this transplant process can be:

  • Collected from the donor’s blood.
  • Taken from the bone marrow that is within a donor’s hipbone.
  • Collected from the blood of a donated umbilical cord.

Prior to undergoing this transplant, the patient will receive high doses of chemotherapy or radiation to destroy the diseased cells and prepare their body for the donor cells.

Why Is It Done?

The allogeneic stem cell transplant may be an option for people with a variety of cancerous as well as noncancerous diseases, including:

  • Acute Leukemia
  • Aplastic Anemia
  • Adrenoleukodystrophy
  • Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes
  • Chronic Leukemia
  • Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
  • Hemoglobinopathies
  • Inborn Errors Of Metabolism
  • Immune Deficiencies
  • Myelodysplastic Syndromes
  • Multiple Myelomas
  • Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
  • Neuroblastoma
  • POEMS syndrome
  • Plasma Cell Disorders
  • Primary Amyloidosis

What Can Be Expected Before/During/After The Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant?

The patient undergoes high doses of cancer treatment, and this process is termed as conditioning.

The patient receives an infusion of stem cells.

The patient is kept in close medical care after the surgery for observation and to read the reactions by the body.